Bible Typography Manifesto

First published November, 2011

The format is tongue-in-cheek, but the upshot is serious. Read and sign.


  • typography is a major but often overlooked source of meaning, for good or ill, in any book,
  • and Bible typography, in particular, has long been shackled by unexamined custom and consumer forces rather than shaped by readers’ best interests,
  • and chapter and (especially) verse divisions have a comparatively brief history among God’s people,
  • and prooftexting and other forms of hermeneutical atomism—which are abetted by a versified rather than a paragraphed Bible—are still rife among Christians,
  • and computers have made good typography easily achievable,
  • and computers have put extensive Bible study materials literally in the pocket of countless believers,

WE, THE UNDERSIGNED, do hereby call upon all Bible publishers throughout the world to

  1. limit the number of Bible editions published in two-column formats, and
  2. begin publishing most Bibles in paragraphed, one-column formats.

These two items form the heart of our polite demands—but here are a few more for good measure, specifically directed at American Bible publishers:

  • Publishers and readers alike must add a fundamental binary category to their thinking about Bible publishing: study editions and readers’ editions. Americans have enough money to have both kinds (and they also typically have access to computer resources for Bible study), so Bibles should cease trying to compromise between these two major categories of Bible usage.
    • Study Editions should have superscript numerals and letters referring readers to other parts of Scripture and to explanatory material. They should still be set in a single column, but should include as much useful information for the Bible student as possible.
    • But Readers’ Editions should be free of these intrusions. Readers Editions should, in fact, have nothing but the text, set in paragraphed formatting common to other serious non-fiction. Verse numbers, ideally, would be omitted in these editions. They might possibly go in the margin as an acceptable compromise, and a verse range can certainly be put in the header for each page, but anyone who needs to look up a particular verse can use a study edition or a computer/smart phone. (The Books of the Bible project is a good example of a Reader’s Edition. Update, 2014: Partly as a result of this manifesto, Crossway now offers an ESV Reader’s Edition.)
  • Within the two categories above, feel free to produce as much useful variation as possible: wide margins, journaling editions, preachers’ Bibles, etc.
  • Pay attention to typography. Pay actual designers to lay out your Bibles. There are standards for ideal line length, type size, and leading that have been established over the centuries. Lexicon is a exceptionally good typeface for Bible publishing.
  • Do not try to sell Bibles by including cutesy material that undermines the gravity of the text—or edgy, worldly material that undermines its holiness. Bibles should not look like teen magazines or gift-store kitsch. The medium is part of the message.

We are aware that evangelical Christians will be suspicious of any changes to The Way Things Have Always Been. But it’s time to learn a lesson from Steve Jobs, who didn’t know he was speaking about Bible typography when he said, “It’s really hard to design products by focus groups. A lot of times, people don’t know what they want until you show it to them.” Jobs has proved that beauty of form actually enhances usefulness of function.

The particular function Readers’ Bibles will serve is keeping the flow of thought going for Bible readers. The paragraphs will break up the thought where the thought itself breaks instead of at fixed intervals (as in our current system), and the single-column format—along with appropriate modern typographic conventions—will say “narrative” or “letter” (etc.) rather than “reference book,” as double-columns do. Treating the Bible like a reference book to the exclusion of Story has been one of the cardinal errors of evangelical interpretation.

As John Frame points out (DKG, p. 197), not all prooftexting is wrong; but plenty is. And double-column, non-paragraphed Bible text invites it, because it causes readers to think of “verse” as the fundamental unit of scriptural statement. Witness the evangelical predilection to include logical connectors when quoting a verse, despite the fact that they are unnecessary and confusing when quoted alone: “But God commendeth His love toward us… (Rom 5:8).” Unversified text would invite readers to think of familiar verses as parts of paragraphs and overall discourses.

We, the undersigned, commend some publishers, especially Crossway Bibles and Cambridge Bibles, for their sense of creativity and beauty in Bible typography. These have also led the way (along with companies like R. L. Allan) in innovative use of new and old materials for beautiful, flexible, and lasting Bible covers—and in printing methods which allow, for example, rich color on thin Bible paper.


MARK LEE WARD, JR., B.A. Bible/Art, M.A. Bible, Ph.D. New Testament
BRIAN CURTIS COLLINS, B.A., M.A., M.Div., Ph.D. Theology

Comment on this page to become one of the undersigned.

Update (03/07/2012): The manifesto review committee now believes one line in the initial language to be unjustifiably intemperate (even though the whole format is tongue-in-cheek): “Immediately cease publishing Bibles in two-column formats.” Two-column formats do allow for smaller Bibles to be printed, and there may be other specialized reasons for having them. However, it is still the opinion of the committee that their predominance is unfortunate and unnecessary.

Update (10/25/2013): The manifesto has been heard!

Update (7/24/2014): A groundswell is building.


  1. Jay M. Bopp, B.A., M.A., M.F.A. (cand.)

    I am in agreement. I have been using the Life Application Bible in two different translations for many years. Both translations feature paragraphed, one-column format with excellent notation, running glossary, and cross references, in addition to character studies, timelines, and other background information. I am also a fan of Bradbury Thompson’s Washburn College Bible in which Thompson utilized thought-unit typography to better render the KJV Modern Phrased text for lectern reading. It’s a treat for both the eye and the mind.

  2. manthano

    Andrew Steven Anglea, B.A., M.A. Bible (almost M.Div.)

    I’m also an appreciator of the Books of the Bible, and have been using paragraphed electronic texts as my primary medium for some time now.

  3. Luke Seelenbinder

    Luke Thomas Seelenbinder, Bible Reader, Typography Lover

    I will also sign anything that uses a Jobs’ quote (almost).

  4. Javier Caballero

    I whole heartedly agree with the concept of a change in typography to improve readability and understanding. I especially liked the requests not to marginalize the sobriety and holiness of Scripture for the sake of marketing.

    Thank you for posting this!

    B.A M.A. Bible

  5. Jeremy Patterson

    Assuming that I can keep my Bibles that have more than one column, and for the sheer headiness of being part of a group of intellectuals signing a manifesto, I sign.

  6. Theophrastus

    What a tendentious post! I hope you’ll share your views about Hebrew and Greek typography next.

    For me, some bugbears are:

    bold font/black face — for some reason, this is painful to me — just like reading Gothic or blackletter type

    sans-serif fonts — so hard to read when densely printed

    bleed-through — if the paper is translucent and allows type through, it is incredibly annoying

    non-justified text — this just looks awful, especially in a double column format.

    Now, you may imagine that no Bible could possibly be so badly designed that it had all these flaws (as well as many you cite above). But there is one — the 4th edition of the New Oxford Annotated Bible. It is worth buying just to see all the things that can go wrong with book design.

  7. Kyle Hedrick

    So let it be written. So let it be done. (Sorry for the Yul Brenner quote. Just popped into my head).

    • Mark L Ward Jr

      Good points, Lue-Yee. And thank you for commenting!

      “Few instances” is surely right: lectern Bibles have got to be a minute percentage of the market and, more importantly, of actual Bible usage.

      I had an old NEB that had the verse references in the margin. I like that idea a great deal; it seems to be the best compromise one step back from a pure Reader’s Bible. That’s the kind of thing I think I’d prefer to give to someone who is getting his first Bible or who is unlikely to get two! I think it would make a good standard or mainstay in evangelical Bible usage. It would allow a Reader’s Edition to be useful for someone listening to expository preaching in church. I think that even pastors could use it with a little practice.

      However, the more compromises we make on our journey toward the middle of the continuum (between Reader’s Editions and the other “extreme” I recommended, Study Editions) the worse we get. And I’m afraid the otherwise beautiful Clarion is exactly the kind of Bible my silly little manifesto is likely to eliminate, if successful. The Clarion makes great strides toward helping readers, but I don’t think readers use cross references enough to justify their presence in an edition meant for reading. Instead, I’m suggesting we place those references in a Study Edition.

      Right now we seem to have Bibles only toward one extreme of my suggested continuum. There is only one contemporary Reader’s Edition I know of, and only recently was it placed in a mainstream translation, the NIV (before that for several years it was in the much-maligned TNIV and therefore not likely to be successful).

  8. Kenny Duthie BA (Open)

    I would like to see the paragraphed, single column format more. A grand idea.

  9. Rich Shields, MDiv, STM

    I am in favor of many of these recommendations, especially paragraphing and single column format. Just to note that God’s Word translation has been published in single column format since 1995 (and even its predecessor translations back to 1988. The format of the text itself aids the oral reader. Recently the newest publisher of GW offered a text that was double column for history and single column for poetry/prophecy. I have used it on occasion and find it useful.

    Chapter and verse numbers are intriguing. I like the differentiation between a study Bible and a text Bible for their use.

  10. Tommy Keene

    Thomas Keene, BA, MDiv, Phd (Westminster Seminary).

    If chapter and verse numbers are absolutely necessary, something similar to the way we do Josephus and other ancient texts would be appropriate: put it far away in the margins.

  11. Randy Rhoades

    I mostly agree, especially the comments about typography. Paragraphs rather than versification do make the language flow easier to follow.
    However, I would disagree with one column if pages are wide. Newspapers know something about ease of reading and helping people’s eyes follow the story. We need to think about the common man, most of whom read very little. Their eyes are not exercised in following long lines. One column makes senses when the pages are about the size of a novel. This may be good for Bible portions, but can you imagine how huge a Bible would be if it followed the comfortable one column format of novels?

    I have some experience in creating training handouts where where I need to leave trainees with a lot of information on one page. It is using a two column format that gets more on the page with a still easy to follow format. A one column format on a wide page is almost unbearable and easy to loose ones place in the reading. Bible publishing could borrow lessons from other areas of the industry to make the reading more comfortable in formats that draw the eyes along with the story.

    It was said in a 2010 survey that 80% US graduates who do not go on for further studies never open a book again. We who study the Word, or even read this type of blog posts, often forget that our literacy levels are not the average. If we are involved in discipling new converts from among the masses it makes a difference not only what translation they start with (another discussion) but how readable the unfamilar text is for them to follow.

    • Mark L Ward Jr

      Some good points, Randy. Appreciated. I do agree that line length is important. I’ve read that 65 characters tends to be the upper limit for line-length.

  12. cec

    Great article!

    I’m trying to get used to single column paragraph format, but the one thing that I don’t like about it is the very crowded look of each page. (Double column paragraph format looks even worse.) The Bible has a LOT of words, and the pages look so crowded that they appear daunting. Pages in verse format don’t look so intimidating, especially to those new to reading the Bible.

    I actually like single column verse format if the lines aren’t too long, but that makes for a larger Bible, which I don’t prefer. *sigh*

  13. Stéphane Kapitaniuk

    I gladly sign this manifesto. Stéphane Kapitaniuk, Bible school student and church-planter.

  14. Caleb

    I hereby sign in agreement that the issues raised above are important and publishers would do well to head this advice! The caveat in the update footnote is well advised, but, as the original manifesto points out, formatting priorities for printed texts should be re-aligned such that the text and its continuity are put front and center. The text’s integrity should generally take priority over other concerns.

    Rev. Caleb Maclennan

  15. Phil McCheddar

    I endorse your manifesto 100%.

  16. ledrummer

    I endorse comprehensively your manifesto. I am unsure if , Stephanus (Robert Estienne) and Rabbi Nathan did us any favours with their somewhat arbitrary divisions.
    Although the language is different, oft times I read Tyndale’s Bible (Yale University Press) because it is set out in single column with no verse numbers, and only chapter breaks.

  17. Layton Talbert

    Happy to add my meager voice to the burgeoning chorus. I’ve long taught my students the potential hermeneutical perils of what I have dubbed “dedicated versification” and the importance of paragraph formatting. My one pet peeve, however, continues to be the failure of modern translation publishers to find some way of differentiating the singular and plural second person personal pronoun. Few seem to appreciate that the thee’s and thou’s we are so eager to abandon as tedious and obsolete provided English readers (especially English-only readers) with a decided hermeneutical advantage over the reader of modern translations in not a few passages where the difference between the singular “you” (thee, thou, thy) and plural “you” (you, your) is critical to a correct understanding of the passage. The unwillingness to stylize the plural “you” in some simple way in modern translations, and/or the apparent continuing ignorance over its significance, continues to mystify me.

    P.S. Hurrah for Bibliotheca which, it appears, may be correcting this pronominal peccadillo. Looking forward to my copy!

    Layton Talbert, PhD
    Professor of Theology and Biblical Exposition
    Bob Jones University Seminary & Graduate School of Religion

  18. Mark Sequeira

    I agree fully. we need to get back to context of books and letters and thought rather than proof-texting verses. I for one want this kind of Bible. Please. (And I am a voracious reader!)

  19. Brad Beyenhof

    Signed. I appreciate that the manifesto itself does not take a position on justified text (though it has been mentioned in the comments). I prefer a ragged-right, left-justified text, mostly to keep spacing consistent. I can appreciate that an appropriate line length and good hyphenation can help the spacing immensely, though.

  20. Elijah Wilcott, B.S., M.A.

    Hey guys! Sorry I’m late, but count me in.

    I’m also seriously considering adopting the “two-Bible model” for myself: NASB New Inductive Study Bible for church and study, and an ESV Reader’s Bible for reading and memorizing. That will enable me to make the “switch” to ESV without losing all I’ve written in my NASB.

    I’m actually not quite ready to take the plunge – hopefully a good ESV without chapter divisions will appear sometime soon. In the meantime, I’m waiting on Bibliotheca for my next Bible read-through.

    Maybe this is a bit off topic, but some points of the discussion remind me of comments from Wayne Grudem on why he often quoted the Bible passages in his Systematic Theology instead of just listing references.

    It’s not so edifying to read a theologian’s point, then see a long string of numbers and colons. Since no one is really going to look all those verses up, those references are nearly meaningless. So, why not put the passage right there for everyone to read? That way the reader’s attention isn’t completely monopolized by the theologian: God gets to have a part in the discussion, too.

  21. David McKay

    I heartily endorse this manifesto. I would like to see more Bibles in the format used by The Books of the Bible, which I have read through and enjoyed twice, so far: once in TNIV and once in NIV2011

  22. Bruce Lindeman

    This issue has been a concern of ours for years. I am so thankful for an opportunity to sign and support this movement. My wife and I serve in central Asia. We teach often and pointedly the need to read the Bible as it was written and to ignore chapter and verse while reading. Find the beginning of each thought or teaching and read it to the end regardless of chapter and verse divisions.
    Also we hope and pray that the practice of reading a single verse in one of the major prophets, or the book of Philippians, framing it, hanging it on the wall and claiming it for our lives all while completely ignorant of the context and intention of the author will stop.

    We look forward greatly to acquiring a readers Bible. Thank you sincerely.

    B and K

  23. Ross Bassingthwaighte

    I agree – wholeheartedly and enthusiastically. The Bibliotheca project of Adam Lewis Greene is one of the most worthy endeavors in recent memory.

  24. Eric Rea

    I agree without reservation and hereby indicate so, here, in this single column of only text. I have recently discovered the Books of the Bible publication to my great delight. As a pastor, I would love for the Readers Bible to become a household staple in this generation of Christians.

  25. Josh Privett

    Good presentation, Mark. I even laughed at your jokes. More importantly, I just ordered The Books of the Bible–as well as my wife’s birthday present, since I’m a sucker for getting Super Saver Free Shipping. Two-for-one: not bad for a Saturday morning.

    Keep it up.

  26. Brian Sooy

    I agree with your manifesto, having lived it for the last 25 years.

    I began my journey of designing new typefaces for the Bible in 1985, with the goal of increasing readability for this most important text.

    Was the journey worthwhile? I can only pray yes, otherwise it was not worth the time and effort. There is always room for improvement, yet never enough time to continue the work.

    I humbly submit what have been my contributions to Bible typography:
    (found in select editions of NLT, ESV, GOD’S WORD and the forthcoming The Readable Bible)
    (Exclusive to NLTse editions and in many Life Application Bibles (NIV, NKJV).

  27. Annie

    Yes, yes, yes! Please do at least one reader’s edition sans verse (and preferably) chapter numbers for every major translation, especially the ones that typically get “chopped up” the most, like KJV and NASB. I would love to see something like The Books of the Bible in KJV – I think it will greatly improve the readability of an already linguistically difficult text. The Cambridge Clarion is the closest so far…but any chance of no verse (and chapter) numbers and reference notes?

  28. Bill Krewson

    When I was an undergraduate student, my mentor professor had this on a 3×5 card in his office – ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ οὐ δέδεται (“The word of God is not chained/bound” (2 Tim. 2:9). Surely we must make the Scriptures free from artificial chains that bind that God-breathed message. Your project is one such way to liberate the Word. May God continue to give you resources and supporters in this worthy endeavor!

  29. mephibosheth7

    Absolutely agree! If we could have Bibles that seemed like they wanted to be read, I really think we would be more drawn toward reading the Word. I recently bound my own NASB Four Gospels without verse numbers or columns – but I think I’ll give some of your recommendations a try before I keep going! Thanks for making this a priority.

  30. Sean D'Entremont

    Yes please. I love my esv heritage. But it could still be better and a smaller version!

  31. randyabrown

    I’ve struggled with this for many years. I started partially in an effort to help publishers hear what readers want. I’ve determined from my own habits that we all need to use more than one Bible – one for study and one for reading. I even use a different Bible for carry and another Bible for preaching. Being a pastor and preaching from the KJV, I realize that many readers are not fully getting what the Bible is saying. The KJV is a pretty translation, but its typography is terrible. I want a KJV just like the NLT Select. I’m okay with verse numbers (I can ignore them easily), but chapter numbers and the lack of paragraphs causes readers to not see the whole context.

  32. Daniel Motley

    I agree! I’m all for a better looking Bible!

  33. Sharon Philips

    Agreed !

  34. Eric Mason

    Thanks for the post! I’ve enjoyed watching the video a number of times and have also copied the link to friends who really haven’t even considered this subject at all. I, too, am one who until recently couldn’t put into words why I enjoyed certain copies of scripture over others, until I had some different sources (like you) point out all of the many different details that go into good bible design. I know many are still waiting on Bibliotheca, but until then, some might be interested in this:

    Thanks again for your time and your efforts to offer something to many who never knew it was there.

  35. Sean DEntremont

    Fyi, I’m working on making a kjv set like the new multi volume esv set. I hope to have some photos soon… 🙂 it will be uber minimal and clean text.

  36. Raymond Miller

    Maybe this was covered–I didn’t read all the responses, however, why can’t personal pronouns referring to Deity be capitalized? Especially, He, Him and His as it refers to God and Christ such as in the NKJV and NASB? Many have trouble when a lower case “he” is used; who is the “he” referring to.

  37. Steven


  38. Jordan Kurecki

    Jordan Kurecki
    B.A. Pastoral Theology, Baptist Bible Translators Institute Graduate, Missionary.

    I agree!

    I am awaiting a paragraph edition of the KJV with colored verse markers!

  39. Adam Boyd

    I am a Bible translator working in Papua New Guinea, and I whole-heartedly agree with this manifesto!

  40. Derek

    I designed Bibles for about the past 5 years.

    It’s a fact that Justified text is harder to read especially for people with dyslexia. The reason is the jagged text helps you find your place when you read (when everything is lined up it’s harder to find your place or keep track of where you are).

    The Reader’s Edition is a good idea. Not just as a hard copy but digital copies are needed to.

    Some good fonts to use for Bibles are:
    Open Sans

    If you use Paragraph format, try to separate the paragraphs by ideas.

    Otherwise if you decide on not using the paragraph format, a lot of people like 1 verse per line.

  41. Nick Wackerhagen

    Absolutely signed

    Nick Wackerhagen B.A. Pastoral Ministry/Bible, M.Div.

    This seems good to us and the Holy Spirit.

    I have been nudging people in this direction for a while.

    Thanks for the work, even from 2014. Found this, Mark, from your youtube channel and Logos.

  42. Doug Smith

    I agree. Lexicon is my favorite font for Bibles.

  43. Carl Shank

    Fully agree with the Manifesto. I am a typographer, retired pastor and current church health consultant. Hurrah for proper typography!

  44. Tim Wilkins

    I agree with this and believe it must be taken seriously. I also see other factors such as paper GSM, color of the paper, texture of the paper, the feel of the book itself (leather, PU leather, hardbound, paperback, cloth, etc.) white space between lines and margins that affect reader engagement and, dare I say, enjoyment of the user experience. A Bible that takes into consideration webpage layout in a print format would be most helpful.

  45. John Meyer

    Agreed (except for single column on wide pages)

  46. Riekus

    I am converted through this discussion & presentation (including all other work by Ward). Tks a mil. A carpenter uses many tools. So should we when trying to follow Jesus in all places & capacities

  47. Tony Biondi


  48. Ajani Mighty

    I wholeheartedly agree. I personally believe that the less additions we have to the text–and the more typography is paid attention to–the text itself will unfold its argument and structure to us. Without chapters and verses as crutches, we’d be forced to actually know the Bible itself and be able to navigate it far easier. We’d even be able to find those “obscure places” in the Old Testament relatively easily because we would be more familiar with the books as a whole, having read through them more frequently. Another thing we should explore more is rearranging the order of books. As long as all are present, I believe it’s a worthwhile endeavour.
    When considering Bible typography for original languages Bibles (whether they be GNTs, Hebrew Old Testaments, or Hebrew-Greek Bibles), I believe versification has more legitimate usage (in those editions they’d be placed in the margin, outside of the text itself), but even so I believe there should be editions without versification. Through Aleph with Beth and Alpha with Angela, I believe many more people will start reading the Bible in the original languages devotionally–not just for scholarly/rigorous work.
    Since we’re on Bible typography, I also believe that online Bibles could have features to toggle on or off features such as italics (for those doing detailed study without access to or knowledge of Hebrew and Greek) and capitalization of pronouns referring to deity (for those who absolutely love the feature), whereas physical Bibles wouldn’t have those features.

  49. Carl Shank

    M.Div. Th.M — Yes indeed! I am a theologian and typographer ( and resonate fully with the Manifesto. Excellent!


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